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Banding Together for Waterfowl

Parental Care

Early life for young waterfowl can range from surviving in a single-parent family to living a bird’s version of an Ozzie and Harriet-style childhood.

The majority of male ducks usually invest little or no energy in rearing offspring. In swans and geese, however, both parents are active participants in brood-rearing activities and may remain with their young until the following breeding season. Female geese and swans are typically emaciated following incubation because they feed infrequently during this period and, if left alone to care for offspring, they may be unable to provide sufficient care for young and meet their own requirements. By helping with brood care, males actually enhance the survival of their offspring and mates. The presence of both parents in swans and geese also helps fend off predators because most species of swans and geese nest in areas with little cover for concealment. A pair of adult swans or geese defending a brood is a formidable opponent for most predators.

In most northern-nesting ducks, on the other hand, males play little to no role in brood care. In fact, most male ducks abandon the female when she begins incubation or shortly after her eggs hatch. The bright plumage of the drakes may attract predators, so the male ducks rarely attend broods. Most female ducks usually remain with their broods until they are nearly on the wing. However, female ruddy ducks, diving ducks and sea ducks may remain with their broods for only a few days or weeks. Ducklings in these groups are well insulated and adapted to deep-water habitats; thus, they can avoid predators by swimming to open-water areas or by diving, and need little parental care.

Pair bonds of some southern-nesting ducks—mottled ducks and fulvous whistling ducks, in particular—are maintained throughout the year, and males of these species often attend females and broods. Long-term pair bonds may be beneficial because breeding and brood-rearing habitats are often favorable at irregular times of the year. The plumage of males resembles that of females in these species, so the presence of the male does not attract attention from predators.

Trying to successfully raise offspring in this world is a struggle for any parent. Considering the obstacles waterfowl face, I am extremely thankful for my only child and my wife. I hope, too, that my wife appreciates my sticking around to help in brood rearing.


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