Wetland Conservation Provision
Since 1985 the Farm Bill has contained a Wetland Conservation Provision that helps protect wetlands by disqualifying farmers who convert wetlands to cropland from receiving some Farm Bill payments. This disincentive, commonly known as "Swampbuster," has helped reduce agriculture's role in national wetland loss from more than 80 percent to about 18 percent during 1997-2002. It has also encouraged many landowners to restore additional wildlife habitat by enrolling land surrounding wetlands in WRP, CRP, and other agricultural conservation programs.
The Wetland Conservation Provision took on greater importance for wetlands and waterfowl following two U.S. Supreme Court decisions during the past decade that significantly weakened CWA protections for many wetlands crucial to waterfowl, including prairie potholes. Of the 20 million acres of wetlands that once existed in the Duck Factory, approximately 7.3 million acres remain today. Only about 1.5 million acres of these remaining prairie wetlands have been protected by government agencies and conservation groups through fee-title acquisition and conservation easements. A recent U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service analysis estimated that about 40 percent of the breeding ducks in the U.S. PPR depend on small wetlands embedded in cropland, which are at greatest risk of conversion.
Consequently, the Wetland Conservation Provision is a vital last line of defense for wetlands in North America's most important landscapes for breeding waterfowl. Among the Wetland Conservation Provision's greatest attributes, especially in these austere times, is that it requires zero appropriated funds. In fact, it likely saves the U.S. Treasury money by preventing more marginal, flood-prone cropland from being added to the rolls of federally subsidized crop insurance and disaster payments. With so many other fiscal pressures on conservation programs, maintaining or strengthening the Wetland Conservation Provision is a no-cost way that the 2012 Farm Bill can contribute to wetlands and waterfowl conservation.
Conservation Reserve Program
CRP is best known for providing millions of acres of grassland, restored by cooperating landowners via 10- or 15-year contracts, that serves as important nesting cover for waterfowl, pheasants, and scores of other grassland birds. But CRP grasslands also benefit wetlands in many ways. Wetlands surrounded by CRP cover typically have much better water quality than those surrounded by cropland. And wetlands with high water quality typically support healthier vegetation and a greater abundance of high-protein invertebrates that provide essential habitat and food for ducks during the nesting, breeding, and brood-rearing periods.
Moreover, wetlands surrounded by grassland are afforded some degree of protection from drainage. In 2008, CRP lands in the PPR contained almost 400,000 acres of protected or restored wetlands. While wetlands in cropland are often seen as a nuisance by farmers who have to work around them with large equipment, wetlands on CRP land are viewed much more favorably. They can even be a valuable asset such as a water supply for cattle during emergency situations.
Unfortunately, CRP cutbacks and changes in the 2008 Farm Bill have resulted in a net loss of 1.3 million acres of CRP land in the PPR of the Dakotas and Montana since September 2007. Moreover, CRP contracts are set to expire by 2012 on an additional 1 million acres in North Dakota's PPR alone. While securing funding for CRP will remain a significant challenge in the 2012 Farm Bill, conservationists can certainly make an argument that this program has already experienced significant budget cuts and should be maintained at similar acreage targets.
Wetlands Conservation in the New Farm Bill
As formal debate on the 2012 Farm Bill gets under way, it's important to keep the state of America's wetlands in proper perspective. Think of our remaining wetlands as a bucket of water with holes in the bottom. At times, there have been a lot of holes, and our bucket of wetlands has lost volume fast. At other times, government policies have plugged some of the holes and the drainage slowed. We have even added some wetlands in recent decades via conservation programs like WRP. But regardless of the rate of loss, the total acreage of our nation's wetlands has continued to decline relentlessly over time, taking with it critical waterfowl habitat.
Meanwhile, soaring commodity prices pose a serious threat to wetlands and waterfowl. If current trends continue, more farmers may opt out of the Farm Bill's commodity support programs. And if this financial assistance becomes unnecessary for producers to profitably farm, the Wetland Conservation Provision will lose its power to discourage wetland drainage.
To keep wetland losses from once again accelerating, everyone who values waterfowl and their habitats must stand up in support of WRP, CRP, and other Farm Bill conservation programs (see sidebar). Despite the increasingly polarized tone in Washington, most of us reside much closer to the center. And whether we're farmers, duck hunters, conservationists, or all of the above (as is often the case), most of us care about protecting our remaining wetlands.
That was driven home to me a couple years ago in a meeting with a national agricultural advocacy organization in a key farming state. We were asked to meet with the organization's leaders and explain why DU had taken an anti-farming position on a pending piece of legislation. After we discussed what the bill actually said, and clarified that DU's position was in no way anti-farming, one of the farm group's leaders said, "Look, we're fine with protecting the wetlands that are still there, we just don't want to have to get permits to disk through wet spots in fields that we've been farming for over 25 years!" He was pleasantly surprised when I told him that DU was in complete agreement with them.
From that frank exchange of ideas, I realized that despite the polarization that is all too common in today's politics, those in the conservation and agricultural communities share many of the same values and can find common ground on important policies affecting our nation's wetlands. Successfully maintaining wetland conservation programs in the 2012 Farm Bill will require us to clearly identify this common ground, share in the sacrifices that may need to be made, and work together to ensure that our collective voices are heard on behalf of the wetlands and waterfowl that are so important to us all.
Dr. Scott Yaich is director of conservation operations at DU national headquarters in Memphis.
Your Opinion is More Important Than Ever
When I was growing up, like
most outdoors enthusiasts, I didn't care to get involved in "politics." I
just wanted to enjoy the outdoors, and I knew that I didn't enjoy
talking to congressmen (although I never actually tried it). I followed
the issues and understood their importance, so I was glad that other
people were dealing with politicians and fighting for conservation.
"Besides," I thought, "no congressman is going to care what I think."
after working in government did I realize how important it is for
private citizens to tell they elected representatives what they think
about conservation issues. First, I learned that not many individuals
actually speak up. There are the usual organizations that argue both
sides of the issues, but not many "average people" contact their elected
representatives to tell them what they care about.
But I also learned that when voters do speak up and contact their
elected representatives, these officials listen to them and take their
opinions seriously. During my time in government, I answered hundreds of
letters and was asked to brief officials on important conservation
issues only because someone like you contacted them.
to contact your elected representatives may not be much fun, but it's
vital to conserving the wetlands and waterfowl that we all enjoy. And as
the debate begins about the 2012 Farm Bill, there has never been a more
important time for you to be heard than right now. Regularly visit the
DU website at www.ducks.org/publicpolicy for updates on how you can show
your support for Farm Bill conservation programs, and please don't
hesitate to tell your elected representatives what is important to